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Cluster-based Deep Ensemble Learning for Emotion Classification in Internet Memes

Xiaoyu Guo, Jing Ma, Arkaitz Zubiaga

Journal of Information Science. In press.

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Memes have gained popularity as a means to share visual ideas through the Internet and social media by mixing text, images and videos, often for humorous purposes. Research enabling automated analysis of memes has gained attention in recent years, including among others the task of classifying the emotion expressed in memes. In this article, we propose a novel model, cluster-based deep ensemble learning (CDEL), for emotion classification in memes. CDEL is a hybrid model that leverages the benefits of a deep learning model in combination with a clustering algorithm, which enhances the model with additional information after clustering memes with similar facial features. We evaluate the performance of CDEL on a benchmark data set for emotion classification, proving its effectiveness by outperforming a wide range of baseline models and achieving state-of-the-art performance. Further evaluation through ablated models demonstrates the effectiveness of the different components of CDEL.